VNA Master Class – Offset Frequency Measurements with a VNA

A Copper Mountain Technologies VNA can make offset measurements where the stimulus and receiver are not at the same frequencies. This allows for the characterization of upconverters, downconverters, and mixers. Because the frequencies differ, phase measurement has no meaning and only scalar amplitude is determined. Vector mixer calibration utilizing a de-embedded reference mixer makes the stimulus and receiver measurements the same and allows for full amplitude and phase characterization of the mixer under test. De-embedding of the reference mixer requires a second-tier calibration. In this webinar, both of these methods will be demonstrated.