Prevention and Control of Electrostatic DischargeJune 19, 2019
Mini-Circuits has a great resource for preventing electrostatic discharge (ESD). Of course, ESD can cause damage to instruments over time. While we don’t notice it, ESD happens without us realizing. Follow the guide below to control the ESD to your VNA.
Measurement of Electronic Component Impedance Using A Vector Network Analyzer
March 26, 2019
Electrical impedance is an important parameter used to describe individual electrical circuit components or a circuit as a whole. Impedance is a complex number, in which the real part is represented by resistance and the imaginary part is represented by reactance. Once the impedance is determined, one can calculate other parameters such as resistance, inductance, capacitance, scattering coefficient, and figure of merit; draw an equivalent circuit of the measured circuit and predict its behavior over the desired frequency band.
Using a VNA as a Signal Generator
April 19, 2018
A common question from users of Copper Mountain Technologies’ USB-based Vector Network Analyzers is whether the analyzer can be used as a signal source. Users’ motivations for doing so vary, but most commonly the question arises when an additional source is needed in a test setup but is not available. For example, a source might be needed as the LO to a mixer, to check functionality of another test equipment like a power meter or spectrum analyzer, or to produce a reference clock for use elsewhere in a test system. Fortunately, any CMT VNA can readily be used as a signal source. This application note describes the process of configuring a CMT VNA as a signal source, and the expected performance of an analyzer so-configured. This application note is based on the S2 family of instruments’ software; other instruments will follow similar menu structures and procedures.
Calibration Types and Considerations
April 19, 2018
One of the most frequently asked questions we receive at Copper Mountain Technologies’ sales and support departments goes something like this: “What about calibration?” It’s an unfortunate reality that in the English language, Calibration has two completely distinct definitions. The first relates to checking out the instrument periodically to make sure it is operating within its specifications. “Performance test” is the procedure by which the analyzer performance is verified, typically annually. The second meaning is to do with Measurement or User calibration, a collection of techniques by which measurement accuracy is maximized and made to exclude elements of the system from those measurements (such as cables, adapters and the like). In this application note, we discuss both meanings of calibration as related to Copper Mountain Technologies’ Vector Network Analyzers (VNAs). First, we describe Annual Calibration and then later we discuss measurement calibration.
Getting Started with the CMT VNA: Top 10 Tips and Tricks
February 14, 2018
The examples created in this document are based on the S5048, but apply to most of the Copper Mountain Technologies VNAs in a similar way. These tips will help you use your VNA with ease and help you get more intuitive results.